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Monday, May 4, 2020 | History

2 edition of Notes on X-efficiency and technical progress. found in the catalog.

Notes on X-efficiency and technical progress.

Harvey Leibenstein

Notes on X-efficiency and technical progress.

by Harvey Leibenstein

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  • 32 Currently reading

Published by Harvard Institute of EconomicResearch in Cambridge (Mass.) .
Written in English


Edition Notes

SeriesDiscussion paper / Harvard Institute of Economic Research -- No.162
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13835124M

Retrospectives: X-Efficiency by Michael Perelman. Published in vol issue 4, pages of Journal of Economic Perspectives, Fall , Abstract: In a article in the American Economic Review, Harvey Leibenstein introduced the concept of "X-efficiency": the gap between ideal allocative.   X-efficiency – incentives to cut costs. Efficiency of scale – taking advantage of economies of scale. Social efficiency – taking into account external costs/benefits. 1. Productive efficiency. This occurs when the maximum number of goods and services are produced with a given amount of inputs. This will occur on the production possibility.

Efficiency, in economics and organizational analysis, a measure of the input a system requires to achieve a specified output.A system that uses few resources to achieve its goals is efficient, in contrast to one that wastes much of its input. Efficiency is a favourite objective of economists and administrators, but not everyone agrees on its meaning. A collection of GCSE revision notes. Energy Efficiency. The efficiency of an electrical component or appliance, can be measured using a simple equation.

x-efficiency meaning: a situation in which a company or a particular machine produces the largest possible number of. Learn more. Recently has been shown that, given certain conditions, altruism can prevail in a population even without the help of mechanisms as kin selection, reciprocal altruism and group selection. At the light of this hypothesis, it is shown how altruism and cooperative aptitudes can favor the concentration of a population and how an (incomplete) evolution of altruism, caused by group selection, into Cited by: 6.


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Notes on X-efficiency and technical progress by Harvey Leibenstein Download PDF EPUB FB2

X-efficiency, Scale Economies, Technological Progress, and Competition efficiency is negatively related to product diversity, and positively related to the extent of.

X-efficiency, Notes on X-efficiency and technical progress. book efficiency, and incomplete information use: A ic Development and Cultural Change – Google Scholar. Leibenstein, H. On the basic propositions of X-efficiency an Economic Review — Papers and Proceedings –Cited by:   X-efficiency is the degree of efficiency maintained by individuals and firms under conditions of imperfect competition.

According to the neoclassical theory of economics, under perfect Author: Will Kenton. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technological Progress, and Technical Efficiency Change Dimensions of Productivity Change in Yugoslavia, Reprinted with permission from Thle Econiomic Journial, vol. 92 (December ), pp.

Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure AuthorizedFile Size: 1MB. X-inefficiency happens when a lack of effective / real competition in a market or industry means that average costs are higher than they would be with competition Rising average cost Some common examples of x-inefficient behaviour include businesses happy with satisficing profits, permitting a degree of organisational slack, and rising average.

The difference between actual and potential costs is the x-inefficiency. X Efficiency would occur be when competitive pressures cause firms to combine the optimum combination of factors of production and produce on the lowest possible average cost curve.

Causes of X Inefficiency. Monopoly Power. A monopoly faces little or no competition. This note examines three concepts of efficiency: technical, productive, and allocative. Efficiency measures whether healthcare resources are being used to get the best value for money.

1 Health care can be seen an intermediate product, in the sense of being a means to the end of improved health. Efficiency is concerned with the relation between Cited by: Technical efficiency generally increased from FY/13 to /15, and dropped by FY / Some hospitals were persistently efficient while others were inefficient over this period.

Technical Efficiency vs Allocative Efficiency Technical efficiency is the basic productive capacity of an organization or economy. Allocation efficiency is a strategy that uses that capacity efficiently.

For example, an organization that can produce pencils per hour isn't efficient if those pencils are produced in a color that no customers want. Technical Efficiency vs Economic Efficiency. Technical efficiency and economic efficiency are two types of concepts that differ from one another in many ways.

Efficiency is an important aspect in economic terms. Technical efficiency happens when there is no possibility to increase the output without increasing the input/5(3). They applied the flexible Fourier cost function to estimate scale economies, X-efficiency and technical changes for Japanese banks for the period of – The novelty of this study was the applied model that allowed checking for risk and asset quality factors.

The risk factor was then controlled by a financial capital and liquidity Cited by: Technical (or X-efficiency) – existing resources are used in the most efficient way, producing maximum possible output. Must take place on the PPF.

However, an X-efficient allocation is not a sufficient condition for economic efficiency as it is not necessarily Pareto-efficient (may not reflect wishes of consumers as well). Downloadable (with restrictions). The performance of a sample of French urban transit companies is evaluated using a broad selection of nonparametric reference technologies for two specifications of the production process.

In particular, the variable returns to scale Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models with either strong or weak disposability in both inputs and outputs, and the Free. X-efficiency and economic growth Technical (or X-efficiency) – existing resources are used in the most efficient way, producing maximum possible output.

Must take place on the PPF. However, an X-efficient allocation is not a sufficient condition for economic efficiency as it is not necessarily Pareto-efficient (may not reflect wishes of consumers as well).

Technical efficiency (TE) is the ability of management to implement a technically efficient production plan (see Berger et al., b), which indicates the level of X-efficiency. 1 It can be shown that (1) TE i, t = TEV i, t × SE i, t, where SE i,t is the scale efficiency index Cited by: Efficiency.

Assessing the efficiency of firms is a powerful means of evaluating performance of firms, and the performance of markets and whole economies. There are several types of efficiency, including allocative and productive efficiency, technical efficiency, ‘X’.

Malmquist Productivity Indexes Definitions and properties Decomposing the Malmquist productivity index Evaluating Malmquist Approximating Malmquist Superlative index numbers: Fisher and Törnqvist 71File Size: KB.

One has to distinguish the X-efficiency concept from the theory intended to explain it. As a concept X-inefficiency is similar to technical inefficiency.

Leibenstein originated the concept of X-inefficiency because of a belief that there is nothing technical about the most substantial sources of non-allocative inefficiencies in organizations.

Other articles where X-efficiency is discussed: efficiency: measured via the concept of x-efficiency, which is defined as the degree to which a group of inputs achieves the maximal level of outputs possible with those inputs.

Market theory predicts that all firms will be x-efficient under perfect competition, because competitors would drive x-inefficient firms out of business over. technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of Russia’s commercial banks (sample of ) using DEA, over a period of 3.

RUSSIAN BANKING SECTOR. Banking sector in former Soviet Union has experienced major transformations throughout the s. In the pre and earlyFile Size: KB.

X-Efficiency Definition. X-Efficiency refers to the behavior, performance and efficiency that traders and firms maintain in imperfect a perfect market competition, elements of monopoly do not exist in the market and the prices of commodities are nmit controlled by individuals.

Under perfect competition, firms and individuals are able to exhibit efficiency to the full potential.Types of efficiency and when to use them in the exam. so these notes should be useful! Economic efficiency is about making the best use of our scarce resources among competing ends. so that economic and social welfare is maximised over time.

Allocative efficiency. 1. Achieved when the value consumers place on a good (reflected in the.It’s hard to determine what this department loves more: proper grammar usage or cats. Our team of technical writers is passionate when it comes to the notes, guides, and promotional material it creates.

At any given moment, you may walk into their area and .